Ioannis Tsougos*, Evanthia Kousi, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Eftychia Kapsalaki and Kostas N. Fountas Pages 39 - 51 ( 13 )
Background: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) comprises the most common form of symptomatic refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Accurate lateralization and localization of the epileptogenic focus are a significant prerequisite for determining surgical candidacy once the patient has been deemed medically intractable. Structural MR imaging, clinical, electrophysiological, and neurophysiological data have an established role in the localization of the epileptogenic foci. Nevertheless, hippocampal sclerosis cannot be detected on MR images in more than 30% of patients with TLE, and the presurgical assessment remains controversial.
Discussion: In the last years, advanced MR imaging techniques, such as 1H-MRS, DWI, DTI, DSCI, and fMRI, may provide valuable additional information regarding the physiological and metabolic characterization of brain tissue. MR imaging has shifted towards functional and molecular imaging, thus, promising to improve the accuracy regarding the lateralization and the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Additionally, nuclear medicine studies, such as SPECT and PET imaging modalities, have become an asset for the decoding of brain function and activity, and can be diagnostically helpful as well, since they provide valuable data regarding the altered metabolic activity of the seizure foci.
Conclusion: Overall, advanced MRI, SPECT, and PET imaging techniques are increasingly becoming an essential part of TLE diagnostics, when the epileptogenic area is not identified on structural MRI or when structural MRI, clinical, and electrophysiological findings are not in concordance.
Diffusion tensor imaging, epilepsy, functional MRI, MR spectroscopy, PET, SPECT, temporal.
Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larisa, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larisa, Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larisa, Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larisa