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Past and Present of Imaging Modalities Used for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Androgen Receptor Targeted Imaging of Prostate Cancer as a Future Modality for Early, Rapid and Efficient Diagnosis

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Tooba Khaliq, Rashid Rasheed, Dan Cheng, Tao Kong, Le Wang, Saira Azhar, Nazish Jabeen, Yi Lu* and Ghulam Murtaza*   Pages 874 - 886 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Background: Prostate cancer is the second most prevailing cancer among men worldwide. In the most cases, prostate cancer is slowly progressing, whereas, in some cases, it is a rapidly progressing disease leading to the significantly high mortality rate. Thus, there is still demand for prostate-specific imaging in order to provide image-guided early diagnosis and for the provision of patient-specific therapy.

Discussion: Besides discussing traditional diagnostic approaches, this review illustrates a perspective on prostate cancer imaging summarizing current imaging approaches with a special focus on Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA), Bombesin (BN) and Androgen Receptor (AR) targeted imaging using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Positron Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) based on 99mTc and other radiotracers. Here, the prostate biology is reconsidered for nuclear imaging as future modality for early, rapid and efficient diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Conclusion: Future direction in prostate cancer imaging involves the development of androgen receptor based imaging using nonsteroidal antiandrogen agent for early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Keywords:

Prostate cancer, prostate-specific membrane antigen, radiotracer, single photon emission computed tomography, positron-emission tomography, patient-specific therapy.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Institute of Nuclear Medicines, Oncology and Radiations (INOR), Ayub Medical Hospital, Abbottabad, School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad

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