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Radioprotective Effects of Amifostine, L-Carnitine and Vitamin E in Preventing Early Salivary Gland Injury due to Radioactive Iodine Treatment

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Nese Torun*, Asli Muratli, Burcu Dirlik Serim, Alev Ergulen and Gulay Durmus Altun   Pages 395 - 404 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Objective: Standard treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer includes total thyroidectomy and high-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy (RIT) for ablation of remnant thyroid tissue. When administered systemically, RIT can cause radiation-induced damage in non-targeted normal tissues. The aim of the present study was to compare the protective effects of amifostine (AMI), LCarnitine (LC), and Vitamin E (EVIT) against high dose radioactive iodine treatment induced Salivary Gland (SG) damage using SG scintigraphy and histopathological examination.

Methods: Forty adult guinea pigs were studied. Twenty guinea pigs receive 555-660 MBq 131Iodine intraperitoneally (IP) to ablate the thyroid and impair the parenchymal function of the SGs. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: (1) Group 1 (control): 1 mL IP PS (physiological saline); (2) Group 2: single dose of 200 mg/kg IP AMI one hour prior to 1 mL IP PS; (3) Group 3: 200 mg/kg IP LC and 1 mL IP PS for 10 days; (4) Group 4: 40 mg/kg intramuscular (IM) EVITand 1 mL IP PS for 10 days; (5) Group 5: IP RIT after premedication; (6) Group 6: Single dose of 200 mg/kg IP AMI one hour prior to RIT and IP RIT after premedication; (7) Group 7: IP RIT after premedication and 200 mg/kg IP LC for 10 days starting one day before RIT; and (8) Group 8: IP RIT after premedication and 40 mg/kg IM EVIT for 10 days starting one day before RIT. Scintigraphy was performed 1 month after treatment. SGs were examined by light microscopy and a histopathological scoring system was used to assess the degree of SG damage.

Results: There were significant differences in the body weight and thyroid hormone levels between the groups after treatment.

Conclusion: The individual use of AMI, LC and EVIT for radioprotection yield different levels of protection against radioactive iodine treatment injury in SGs; however, none of the agents could provide absolute protection at the doses administered in this experimental model.

Keywords:

Radioactive iodine therapy, salivary gland, amifostine, L-Carnitine, Vitamin E, thyroid cancer.

Affiliation:

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiology Institute, ─░stanbul University, Istanbul, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne

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