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Detecting Brain Tumor using Machines Learning Techniques Based on Different Features Extracting Strategies

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Lal Hussain*, Sharjil Saeed, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Adnan Idris, Malik Sajjad Ahmed Nadeem and Qurat-ul-Ain Chaudhry   Pages 595 - 606 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background: Brain tumor is the leading cause of death worldwide. It is obvious that the chances of survival can be increased if the tumor is identified and properly classified at an initial stage. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is one source of brain tumors detection tool and is extensively used in the diagnosis of brain to detect blood clots. In the past, many researchers developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems that help the radiologist to detect the abnormalities in an efficient manner.

Objective: The aim of this research is to improve the brain tumor detection performance by proposing a multimodal feature extracting strategy and employing machine learning techniques.

Methods: In this study, we extracted multimodal features such as texture, morphological, entropybased, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), and Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (EFDs) from brain tumor imaging database. The tumor was detected using robust machine learning techniques such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) with kernels: polynomial, Radial Base Function (RBF), Gaussian; Decision Tree (DT), and Naïve Bayes. Most commonly used Jack-knife 10-fold Cross- Validation (CV) was used for testing and validation of dataset.

Results: The performance was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV), False Positive Rate (FPR), Total Accuracy (TA), Area under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), and P-value. The highest performance of 100% in terms of Specificity, Sensitivity, PPV, NPV, TA, AUC using Naïve Bayes classifiers based on entropy, morphological, SIFT and texture features followed by Decision Tree classifier with texture features (TA=97.81%, AUC=1.0) and SVM polynomial kernel with texture features (TA=94.63%). The highest significant p-value was obtained using SVM polynomial with texture features (P-value 2.65e-104) followed by SVM RB with texture features (P-value 1.96e-98).

Conclusion: The results reveal that Naïve Bayes followed by Decision Tree gives highest detection accuracy based on entropy, morphological, SIFT and texture features.

Keywords:

Brain tumor, MRI, CAD, Support Vector Machine (SVM), decision tree, naïve bayes, morphological, entropy, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), texture, Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (EFDs).

Affiliation:

Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, City Campus 13100, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, City Campus 13100, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, City Campus 13100, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Rawalakot, Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, City Campus 13100, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, City Campus 13100, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir

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