Andrea Sambri*, Michele Fiore, Claudio Giannini, Valerio Pipola, Riccardo Zucchini, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gomez, Paula Musa Aguiar, Alessandro Gasbarrini and Massimiliano De Paolis
The diagnosis of sacral neoplasms is often delayed because they tend to remain clinically silent for a long time. Imaging is useful at all stages of managing sacral bone tumors: from the detection of the neoplasm to the long-term follow-up.
Radiographs are recommended as the modality of choice to begin the imaging workup of a patient with known or suspected sacral pathology. More sensitive examinations such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MRI), or scintigraphy are often necessary. The morphological features of the lesions on CT and MRI help to orientate the diagnosis. Although some imaging characteristics are helpful to limit the differential diagnosis, an imaging-guided biopsy is often ultimately required to establish a specific diagnosis.
Imaging is of paramount importance even in the long-term follow-up in order to assess any residual tumor when surgical resection is incomplete, to assess the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and to detect recurrence.
Sacrum, Tumor, Osteolysis, Bone tumor, Benign, Malignant
IRCCS Policlinico di Sant'Orsola Orthopedics, University of Bologna Orthopedics, University of Bologna Orthopedics, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Spine Oncology, University of Bologna Orthopedics, Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital; 2 Park Road, Grafton, 1023 Auckland, Serdil, Clinica de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem; R. São Luís, 96 - Santana, Porto Alegre - RS, 90620-170, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Spine Oncology, IRCCS Policlinico di Sant’Orsola Department of Orthopaedics