Asma Rafique, Rashid Rasheed, Saba Shamim, Munazza Ijaz and Ghulam Murtaza*
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and is declared a global health issue by the World Health Organization in 1993. Due to the complex pathophysiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it remains a global threat. This article reviews the conventional diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis, their limitations to detect latent TB, multiple drug-resistant TB, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected TB lesions, and TB in children. Moreover, this review illustrates the importance of nuclear medicine imaging for early, non-invasive diagnosis of TB to detect disease stages and monitor therapy response. Currently, single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography with their specific radionuclides have been extensively used for a thorough assessment of TB.
Diagnostics, latent tuberculosis, multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis, nuclear medicine, single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography.
Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22600, Institute of Nuclear Medicines, Oncology,and Radiations (INOR), Ayub Medical Hospital, Abbottabad, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, the University of Lahore, Lahore, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, the University of Lahore, Lahore, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus 54000